“Ummah” in Islam

Yahya Birt

2 May 2024


“Ummah” may be translated into English as “common will” and it has a dual nature: confessional and contractual. Confessionally, it encompasses those who submit to God and uphold ethical principles. Contractually, it refers to a social contract for mutual security and peaceful coexistence. The challenge posed, according to Yahya Birt, Director of the Ayaan Institute in London, is reconciling these aspects in a modern, globalized context, ensuring inclusivity and pluralism. Birt belongs to V-THEO’s working group on Islam.

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